Biographies and articles found on this site may only be reproduced in full with the permission of the author. Furthermore, please be sure to include all citations where applicable. Direct links to articles and cited excerpts are permitted freely.

Images on this site are often property of the author, unless otherwise noted, however some digital images are obtained via email submission. If an image in not cited or cited incorrectly, please contact me for correction. Furthermore, while I take pains to quote and acknowledge all sources pertaining to articles, in the acknowledgments section, please do not hesitate to contact me regarding further citations as it pertains to personal copyrighted material.

Archived below are films, articles and reference texts that have been useful in creating this website and expanding my knowledge. It is only fair that the persons responsible for works listed below are acknowledged for their efforts.

Circus Mourn ‘Best-Liked Freak.” The New York Times, April 19, 1926.
Morris, the Indian Rubber Man.” Scientific America, July 9, 1898.
Adams, Rachel. Sideshow U.S.A.: Freaks and the American Cultural Imagination. Chicago, 2001.
Anderson, Elizabeth J. Ratt’s Phreequeshow. Various Articles.
Aldrovandi, U. Monstrorum historia. 1642.
Barnum, Phineas T. Struggles and Triumphs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927.
Being Different. Dir. Harry Rasky. Double S. Productions (Astral), 1981.
BME Encyclopedia Online.
Boaistuau, P. Histoires prodigieuses, 1560. Repr. 2000.
Bogdan, R. Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit. University of Chicago, 1990.
Bonderson, Jan. A Cabinet of Medical Curiosities. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
Bonderson, Jan. The Two-Headed Boy. Cornell University Press, 2000.
Bone, Howard. Sideshow: My Life with Geeks, Freaks & Vagabonds in the Carny Trade. Sun Dog Press, 2001.
Cassuto, L. The Inhuman Race: The Racial Grotesque in American Literature and Culture. New York, 1997.
Cook, James. The Arts of Deception: Playing with Fraud in the Age of Barnum. Cambridge, 2001.
Dennett, Andrea S. Weird and Wonderful: The Dime Museum in America. New York University Press, 1997.
Drimmer, Frederick. Very Special People. Repr. New York: Citadel Press, 1991.
Dunn, Katherine. Geek Love. New York: Warner Books. 1983.
Freaks Uncensored! Dir. Ari Roussimoff. Bohemia Productions, 1998.
Freaks. Dir. Tod Browning. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1932.
Gilliams, E. Leslie. “Side-Show Freaks as Seen by Science.” Illustrated World, October 1922.
Gould, George M., & Walter L. Pyle. Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine. 1896. Repr. New York: Bell, 1956.
Gregor, Jan T., with Tim Cridland. Circus of the Scars. Seattle: Brennan Dalsgard, 1998.
Haeger, Knut. The Illustrated History of Surgery. Harold Starke Publishers Limited, 1990.
Hall, Ward. My Very Unusual Friends. Published by the Author, 1991.
Hartzman, Marc. American Sideshow. Penguin Group, 2005.
Hartzman, Marc. Backwash Magazine. Various Issues.
Hornberger, Francine. Carny Folk: The World’s Weirdest Sideshow Acts. Citadel Press, 2005.
Howell, Michael & Peter Ford. The True History of the Elephant Man. London: Alison & Bushby Ltd, 1980.
Leroi, Armand M. Mutants: On Genetic Variety and The Human Body. Penguin Books: Penguin Group, 2003.
Liceti, Fortunio. De monstrorum natura caussis et differentiis. 1634. Repr. 2000.
Liedler, Leslie. Freaks: Myths and Images of the Secret Self. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1978.
Lindfords, B., ed. Africans on Stage: Studies in Ethical Show Business. Bloomington: Indiana Press, 1999.
Mac, Beth & Jen McCaffery. ‘Eko and Iko: The Remarkable Life of Willie Muse.‘ The Roanoke Times, 2001.
Mannix, Daniel P. Freaks: We Who Are Not As Others. New York: Pocket Books, 1976.
Martell, Joanne. Millie- Christine: Fearfully and Wonderfully Made. John S. Blair, Publisher. 2000.
McCullough, Edo. Good Old Coney Island. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1957.
McKennon, Joe. Circus Lingo. Sarasota, FL: Carnival Publishers of Sarasota, 1980.
McWhirter, Norris, ed. Guinness Book of World Records, 17th Edition. New York: Bantam Books, 1979.
Mitchell, M., ed. Monsters. (Photographs of Chas. Eisenmann). Toronto, 2002.
Monestier, Martin. Human Oddities: A Book of Nature’s Divine Abnormalities. Citadel Press, 1987.
Pare, A. On monsters and marvels, 1573. (Trans. J. L. Pallister) Chicago Press, 1982.
Rose, Jim & Melissa Rossi. Freak Like Me: Inside the Jim Rose Circus Sideshow. New York: Dell, 1995.
Rosen, Fred. Lobster Boy. New York: Pinnacle Books. 1995.
Rusid, Max. Sideshow. New York: Amjon, 1975.
Sideshow: Alive On The Inside. Exec. Prod. Tim Miller; dir. Lynn Dougherty. Big Chief Entertainment, 1996.
Sloan, Mark. Wild, Weird and Wonderful: The American Circus 1901-1927. Quantuck Press, 2003.
Stencil, A. W. Seeing is Believing: America’s Sideshows. Canada: ECW Press, 2002.
Taylor, J. Shocked and Amazed: On & Off The Midway, vols. 1-8. Atomic Books, 1995-2003.
The Barnum Museum Website.
The Human Canvas Online.

The Life & Adventures of Capt. Constentenus. By Himself. New York Popular Publishing, 1881. Repr. 2000
The Mutations. Dir. Jack Cardiff. Subversive Cinema, 1974.
Thompson, C. J. S. and M. B. E. Giants, Dwarfs and Other Oddities. New York: Citadel Press, 1968.
Thomson, Rosemarie Garland. Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. New York, 1996.
Thomson, R. G. Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring Physical Disability in American Culture. New York, 1996.
Wood, Gaby. Edison’s Eve. New York: Anchor Books, 2003.
Circus and Museum Freaks – Curiosities of Pathology” Scientific America, March 2, 1908